About TT

I'm a 3rd year jewellery student, who wants nothing but to travel the world.

Cloisonné and its Significance in Ancient and Modern Chinese Art

Cloisonné is the name used to describe the process of enamelling metalwork. The name derives from the French word ‘cloisons’ which means ‘compartments’. Cloisonné involves soldering a pattern of copper or bronze wire onto a similar metal surface, to form ‘compartments’, which are then filled with vitreous enamel. This technique first came to China in the 14th Century via trade routes from Eastern Europe, and through the years has become an exceedingly popular and iconic feature in Chinese art.

The Cloisonné technique is thought to have started in the ‘Near Eastern’ countries such as Egypt, the Byzantine and Roman empires, and even spreading to the more northern Anglo Saxon countries, where the earliest pieces of Cloisonné have been recovered. Some of the oldest traces of Cloisonné work can be found on small rings and brooches from the Byzantine and Roman eras, and are often very simple designs. In these early stages of metal enamelling, metal cloisons were rather bulky and therefore limited the technique’s potential.

Cloisonné is better known to be the main technique featured on many of the Egyptians’ ‘Pectorals’ or neck plates. Ancient Egyptian Cloisonné involves thicker metal plates than those you may see on the classic Chinese Cloisonné, and they preferred to use crushed gemstones and glass rather than enamels for their narrative neckpieces. As a result these Pectorals are vibrant and bold in colour yet, in comparison to Chinese Cloisonné, they are relatively simple designs.

A Piece of Anglo-Saxon Cloisonne Jewellery

As Cloisonné travelled further east to countries such as Greece, Turkey, and Morocco, the wire forming the ‘cloisons’ became thinner, and their pieces became smaller and more delicate. Hence, Cloisonné became a popular jewellery making technique. There are several pieces of Cloisonné Jewellery from the Roman and Byzantine eras which are very similar in technique and in subject. They feature narrative yet simplified designs depicting biblical characters and stories, and are often red in colour due to their repeated use of Garnet stones – a well-known symbol of Christ. Cloisonné is thought to have been developed during the Byzantium period, where the wire compartments became a lot more elaborate and detailed, making it harder to set gemstones and glass, and therefore use of enamels became more prominent.

Cloisonné is thought to have been introduced into China in the 14th Century, during the Ming Dynasty via a network of trade routes from as far as Northern Africa and Eastern Europe. However some say it was introduced during the previous Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty, which suggests that Cloisonné came into China through the exchange of goods from Mongolia and its surrounding countries.

At this point in time, Cloisonné had developed and evolved into a delicate and skilful art, and the first pieces that were imported to China were likely to have been relatively detailed and elaborate. The Chinese then developed their own unique style of Cloisonné, which we recognise today as a popular form of Chinese art. The Chinese name for Cloisonné is ‘Jingtai Lan’. They originally chose the name ‘Jingtai’ but soon added the word ‘Lan’ – Chinese for ‘Blue’ – to the name, when they discovered a new vibrant turquoise blue enamel, which thereafter featured largely in many Chinese Cloisonné pieces.

Jongtailan Cloisonne Vase, unknown artist, Brooklyn Museum

The content of Chinese ‘Jingtailan’ pieces is what makes them so unique. Their pieces often feature imagery of dragons, ‘foo dogs’ (a mythical Chinese creature with the body of a dog but the head of a lion), plants and flowers, ‘Ho Birds’, cherry blossoms, good luck symbols, and repeated oriental pattern motifs. Their designs are distinctive, beautiful, and usually reminiscent of the Chinese countryside.  Another identifier of Chinese Cloisonné or ‘Jingtailan’ is its colouring. There is no Cloisonné as vibrant and bold as Chinese Jingtailan. Their use of ivory, turquoise blues, and rich reds and yellows juxtaposed with ebony-black enamel and the shimmering linear forms of the bronze or copper wire cloisons is simply an outstanding style unique to China.

Temple of Heaven Interior, Beijing

Temple of Heaven exterior, Beijing

This mysterious new technique from the West was in high demand from the emperors and higher classes of 14th Century China due to its splendour and vivid colouring. It was used to its highest potential to decorate and furnish the interior and exteriors of their palaces and temples. The most famous example of this is Beijing’s ‘Temple of Heaven’, constructed during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, 3rd emperor of the Ming Dynasty. The exterior of the temple simply generates richness. Situated in a vast courtyard, its presence is somewhat overwhelming, and the eye is immediately drawn to the rich red, gold and turquoise blue Cloisonné tiles which cover its walls. However, the interior of the palace is really the most exquisite part. The towering internal pillars are covered in a repetitive floral pattern, in red and gold enamel, while the ceiling is an array of blue, jade, red and gold oriental and geometric patterned tiles. It is almost reminiscent of Islamic tiling, and is likely to have been influenced by pieces imported from middle -eastern countries. This historical monument is a fantastic example of not only the extent to which Cloisonné can be used, but it is also a great example of how valuable and prized this technique was, not only in 14th Century China, but in Chinese history as a whole.

In later years, Cloisonné in China was somewhat dismissed to being a ware only suitable for the likes of décor for lady’s chambers and smaller ornaments, however it was still a greatly prized technique. In this period Cloisonné was developed on smaller pieces and therefore designs became even more detailed. Hence, much of the Chinese Cloisonné that can be found today is in the form of vases or pots with elaborate designs. During this period, many new Cloisonné techniques were invented; the most significant being the Diaper technique, developed during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). This is the name given to a design applied to large areas of ‘background’ on a piece of Cloisonné. There are many forms of this technique including ‘scroll’, ‘wave’ and ‘cloud’. The process is similar to regular Cloisonné in the sense that wire is soldered onto the metal surface in a pattern. However, the wire does not join up to create compartments, it is purely a form of decoration within larger compartments, and the enamel is simply filled in around the pattern.

Champleve

Basse Taille

Another popular technique created by the Chinese in this period is, ironically, named ‘Base Taille’ after the French for ‘low waisted’. This process involves much more shallow wire compartments, so that the enamel is able to leak over the top of the compartments. The cloisons are still visible beneath the enamel but at a lower relief. Similar to this is a technique named ‘Champlevé’, which is French for ‘raised areas’. No wire is used to create the compartments but instead the metal is raised in a ‘repoussé technique (denting and raising metal) to create areas to fill with enamel.

 

Although created by the Chinese, many of these techniques have names deriving from the French language. This is where we begin to see the influence of ‘Chinoiserie’. During the 17th Century, trading had gradually increased in Europe and Asia, and a complex network of trade routes had been created, stretching from Western Europe to the Far East. The well-known term for this is ‘The Silk Road’, named after the popular Chinese silk trade. As importing and exporting goods between countries became more and more prominent, techniques such as ‘Japanning’ (laquerwork) and ‘Jingtailan’ were exchanged between the East and West. Eventually, Jingtailan reached countries such as France and Germany, where it became an extremely popular form of Chinoiserie. Although Western European countries were aware of the Cloisonné technique (popular during the Medieval period) it was the Chinese designs, techniques, symbolism and colours which were in such high demand, and artists used it to create pieces of art displaying their own fantastical vision of the Far East.

Chinoiserie-style Cloizonne Snuffbox, Claude de Villers, 17th Century, V&A Collection

This snuffbox dates back to 17th Century Paris, and was created by an artist named Claude de Villers. It is a perfect example of Chinoiserie-style Cloisonné, featuring images of ‘Chinese’ houses, people, vessels and plants. However, it is somewhat lacking in authentic Chinese Jingtailan style. Although the content of this piece looks Chinese, the technique is still reminiscent of early European Cloisonné styles such as the Roman Empire. Rather than copying the vividly coloured enamel of Chinese Jingtailan, this artist has used a mix of shell and gemstones, similar to that of Roman and Byzantine Cloisonné.  Overall, the content of the piece is very similar to what you may find on a piece of authentic Chinese Cloisonné, however the style is blatantly European Chinoiserie.

Parisian Cabinet featuring 'Japonism' Laquerwork and Chinese Cloisonne

This Parisian Cabinet is of Oriental influence, and features many of the techniques taken from the East, such as laquerwork and Jingtailan, as well as oriental-style motifs and imagery reminiscent of Chinese designs. However its excessive ornamentation and decoration makes it European, and is extremely similar to the Brocade style, which was so fashionable in the 17th Century. Chinese furniture was often more simple in form but with elaborate pattern.

Authentic Chinese Cup, unknown artist, 17th Century, V&A Collection

This item was made sometime between 1736-1795, and is a great example of classic Jingtailan (Jingtai Blue). The design of this piece is elaborate and vivid in colour. Rather than the narrative imagery of Chinoiserie Cloisonné, this Chinese cup features oriental patterns and motifs. There is a classic mix of reds, yellows, blues and jades on a base of copper, which gives the piece an exquisite and authentic look. Chinese Cloisonné was more popularly used as a way to decorate vases, jugs and other ornaments, whereas Chinese-style Cloisonné in Europe was often used to decorate pieces of jewellery. For example, snuffboxes and lockets.

Although European Cloisonné is not authentically Chinese, it is a significant part of the Chinoiserie fashion era of the 17th Century, and a good example of the impact Chinese techniques had on other countries.

Japanese 'Shippo' Vase

The Japanese were also highly influenced by Chinese Jingtailan, arriving in Japan shortly after it arrived in China. There is a very small but significant difference between Chinese Cloisoné and Japanese ‘Shippo’. The main differences are the unique techniques within Shippo that were developed in Japan. These include the popular ‘Musen Jippo’, a name used to describe Cloisonné where the wire cloisons are removed shortly before firing, so the enamels blend together but still keep a faint replica of the pattern from the wire. Similar to the Chinese ‘Champlevé’ technique, the Japanese developed ‘Tsuiki’ which involves a repoussé technique rather than use of wire cloisons. However, the biggest identifiers of Japanese Shippo are features such as ‘Kiku No Mon’ – the name for a Japanese emperors crest. These are largely featured on ancient Japanese Shippo pieces as they were often created for emperors or the higher classes, and required a symbol to represent their name.

The content and design of Japanese Cloisonné is more narrative than that of Chinese Jingtailan. Their designs feature detailed paintings of animals, houses and plants, while Chinese Jingtailan is often more pattern-based, focussing on Oriental motifs and colours. However, these two styles have been shared between China and Japan, making it hard to tell the difference between the two. Nonetheless, Chinese Jingtailan has made a significant impact on Japanese Shippo.

It is clear that Cloisonné has been a significant part of Chinese art and history for several generations, and is still a popular technique today. It has had a great influence on almost every country from Western Europe to the Far East, and is by far the most popular type of Cloisonné to be found. There is a large market for ancient and modern Chinese Jingtailan pieces throughout the world and it has remained one of the most exquisite arts within Chinese culture. Having personally had several failed attempts at making my own Cloisonné, I can appreciate what a divine skill it is, and why it is so valued.

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Rags to Riches

Thousands of people every year migrate from their rural homes in the country to find work in the big cities.Yet, 9 times out of 10, this procedure is not successful.

So why do they continue to do it?

This article will focus on China’s everlasting struggle with poverty and unemployment through the generations, and why nothing is being done about it.

A Harsh Reality

Today’s urban China is a melting pot of rich and poor. While successful businessmen go about their hectic lives of working, socialising and showing off, they turn a blind eye to the poverty that surrounds them. It is not often that these people take notice of the waiters, waitresses, chefs, shop assistents, factory workers and builders who are responsible for China’s wealthy citizens’ comfortable lifestyle. And it is sufficiently more unlikely for them to care about the conditions in which many of these people live and work. It is said that suicides in China count for 26% of suicides worldwide, and many of these suicides are within factories due to ridiculously long hours, hard labour, and extreme stress and pressure, with no end reward. Recently, Shenzhen’s Foxconn factory had to hang suicide nets due to a dozen people committing suicide in the factory.

And these people are the lucky ones. Some of Shanghai and the other big cities’ residents do not even have a fixed job: ‘urban life for them might mean sifting through rubbish for things to sell, or a fresh search for work – like the men who sometimes squatted on the pavement with little cardboard signs laid out in front of them advertising their services: ‘carpenter’, ‘plasterer’, ‘labourer’…’ *

In Hewitt’s ‘Getting Rich First: Life in a Changing China’, we are told about a man called Wei Yuan who works for a rich businessman called Mr Pan. After complaining that the people who usually wash his car (which was now Wei Yuan’s job) never do a good job, he states that he’s sure with Wei Yuan, this won’t be the case. “Its a new job for them, so they’ve got to work extra hard to protect their rice bowl” * His mocking tone is one employed by many others of the same social status with anything concerning their poor migrant employees. It is simply not one of their priorities to care about the lives of others less fortunate than them. Hense the term The ‘Me’ Generation.

The ‘Me’ Generation

This is term used to describe the generation of rich and successful young people living in Modern China, who are often portrayed as self absorbed and concerned more with the latest fashions than current affairs. “On their wish list, a Nintendo Wii comes way ahead of democracy.” **

“There’s nothing we can do about politics, so there’s no point in talking about it or getting involved.” ***

There is a vast divide between the ancient, tranquil China and the ever-increasing global power that it is gradually becoming. And between them? The twenty-something generation: a cross between the shallow, successful young business people of urban China and the struggling factory workers from the countryside. While the young adults of the ‘Me’ generation continue to ignore the issues with their suffering peers, nothing can be done to help them. “Contemporary Chinese society: the officially enshrined divide between urban and rural citizens.” *

The Migrant Generation

For years now, the young people of rural China have followed the somewhat mundane procedure of finishing school, and leaving their countryside homes to find work in the big cities like Shanghai or Hangzhou. As I said earlier, this is never usually successful. However, poverty is extremely prominent in rural China, and people have no choice. “My family are real peasants…I felt my burden was too much on them so I went to look for work” * 

Through the years, as the big cities have gotten bigger and imported foods have become easier to access, there has been less and less demand for produce from the farms in the coutntry . Therefore there is less work in the country, and more work (for however little pay) is available in the cities. Hense, the migrant generation. These people must find work in the cities to provide for their families, but as their search to find a living becomes more desperate, poverty becomes more prominent.

China’s ‘American Dream’

Its hard to express…It’s like wanting something that’s out of reach” *

Ultimately, the people of China, whether they are poor, rich, young or old, are in search of one common thing: the American Dream. It is this idealised concept that encourages the ‘me’ generation, and divides them from the older generation and the unfortunate migrant workers whom they live so close to. But it is not only the so called ‘me’ generation who are in search of this dream. The reason people migrate to the cities and work so hard for such little money, is because they strive for the same thing. And this, I believe, is the reason that poverty and unemployment in China cannot improve.

TT

* All quotes marked with (*) are from ‘Getting Rich First: Life in a Changing China’ – Duncan Hewitt, Vintage Books, 2008.

** Quote from Hong Huang, ‘ China’s Me Generation’ article by Simon Elegant, Time Magazine, 2007

***Quote from a young Chinese person,’ China’s Me Generation’ article by Simon Elegant, Time Magazine, 2007

A Pre-conceived Idea of China and its Products

Many people have very set views of China and its products. China is renowned worldwide for its well made, and very well designed electronics.  However, it is also well known for mass-production, ‘well-made fakes’, and often poor factory conditions. A lot of people do not care where their product has come from, as long as it is good quality and value for money. And many people simply are not aware of how and where their product was made.

I interviewed around 7 friends, friends of friends, and self confessed shopping fanatics to find out their opinion on Chinese products, how they think they are made, and the quality of products which were ‘Made in China’. Each participant was given the same list of questions, but I asked a few different questions too, depending on their answer. Below is an example of one of the more interesting interviews:

Are you concerned with where your clothes come from? 

‘No, it makes no difference whether its from China, the UK or anywhere. I mostly care about the quality of the clothes.’

Would you be put off buying clothes from a certain company if you found out their factory staff were working in bad conditions?

‘I suppose so, but it wouldn’t stop me buying/using the products if they were good quality.’

When you see the words ‘Made in China’, what immediately comes to mind?

‘I just imagine huge, industrial and clean looking factories full of Chinese people making stuff. If something says ‘Made in Taiwan’ however, for some reason I picture kids working in poor conditions for a small wage. (that might be a bit judgemental!)’

Do you think the Chinese produce better quality products than Western countries?

‘If you’re referring to electronics then yes. They are the best at making electronics as far as I am concerned. But in regards to clothes, obviously there is a huge market for fakes in China and that makes me slightly suspicious that their clothing isn’t of as good quality as something you might find in a Western factory.’

If you were given a gift of a piece of clothing – not from a recognisable brand – with only a label that said ‘Made in China’ on it, would you be reluctant to wear it. Would you assume it was poor quality?

I might be a bit suspicious that it came from a market where you might find a lot of fakes, but if the item of clothing looked good and seemed like good quality, I would still wear it.

Coming up with interview questions with a friend in my group…

Each of the participants had very similar opinions on Chinese produce, which were all interesting to hear. However, naturally none of the participants actually KNOW what goes on in the making of products in China. These were all their pre-conceived ideas. I want to know what ACTUALLY happens in Chinese factories, during the making of clothing, electronics and other products, to see if these opinions and allegations are correct.

I recently read an article on Mark Shields, a communications consultant from Washington DC, who describes himself as an ‘Apple super-user’. After finding out about the poor working conditions in Apple Mac factories in China he decided to start a petition which gathered over 162,000 signatures in the space of a week. The petition was to try and attain a ‘worker protection strategy’ to try to reduce the number of injuries and suicides which typically peak when the workers are under extreme pressure to meet quotas. Shields said ‘Here’s the thing: You’re Apple. You’re supposed to think different. I want to continue to use and love the products you make, because they’re changing the world and have already changed my life. But I also want to know that when I buy products from you, its not at the expense of horrible human suffering.’

Female workers resting their heads in exhaustion during their short break at an Apple factory in China

In reading this it was evident that many people DO care about where their product has come from, and how/where it was made. It was also interesting to find out about working conditions in Chinese Apple factories. I can safely say now, as I look at my Apple Mac desktop, that I feel slightly guilty using it. I decided to ask some of my participants a few more questions. But this time, I gave them some facts:

Workers at some Chinese Apple factories are paid as little as £1.12 an hour. In one particular branch, 18 people committed suicide on the premises due to extreme pressure. Many factories are now covered with suicide nets to stop people jumping to their deaths in the facility.

How does this make you feel about using Apple products?

‘I love my Apple Macbook too much to stop using it, but this makes me feel sick and guilty to use it, bearing in mind that it could have been made in these awful conditions.’

Did you think Chinese factories had such bad conditions until now?

‘No. I always thought it was the poorer countries that suffered from poor working conditions. I never knew that such a rich and successful country would treat their workers this way.’

It was interesting to see that, in general, people here, in Dundee, either believe that their stuff is just mass-produced in big, shiny Chinese factories, or, they simply do not care. There is such an element of shock when they find out about the awful working conditions in many Chinese factories, however I found from my survey that this still wouldn’t stop people from buying something made in poor working conditions, providing it was good quality. Ultimately, we tend to want to keep our pre-conceived ideas and stay ignorant to what really goes on during the making of our products, so that we can go on using them without feeling guilty.

Chinese Making Processes

Cloisonné (Jingtailan)

Cloisonné is the name used to describe the process of enamelling or decorating metalwork. The name derives from the French for ‘compartments’ – ‘cloisons’, as Cloisonné is created by soldering wire onto a metal surface in a pattern, and filling the ‘compartments’ made by the wire with vitreous enamel. Cloisonné first developed in Ancient Egyptian Jewellery and body adornment, where they would use a mix of cut gemstones, glass and enamel.  This technique was very popular and through trading it gradually moved around europe, the Anglo-saxon, Roman and Byzantium empires, Russia, and eventually, in the 14th Century it arrived in China.

Cloisonné Making Process

The Chinese name for Cloisonné, ‘Jingtailan’ refers to the Jingtai Emperor during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). The most valued pieces of Chinese Cloisonné are thought to have come from this era, although the earliest pieces date back to the reign of the Xuande Emperor (1425-1435). By the reign of Jingtai, the Chinese had developed very advanced skills in Cloisonné, and therefore created some extremely detailed and beautiful pieces.

Chinese Cloisonné Ornamentation

The Chinese have developed a very distinct style of Cloisonné, and although they did not invent the technique, they appear to be the most famous for it. They often use this technique for pots, vases and ornaments, but it is also used to make pendants and beads for Jewellery. Chinese Cloisonné designs, like many other pieces of Chinese art, are often religious or images of good luck and prosperity. Their designs commonly feature images of winged birds, the Dragon and the Phoenix, which were all thought to be symbols of good virtue. Cloisonné in China is full of bright colours and beautiful patterns and motifs. It is often further decorated with gold and brass sculpture, which gives an extremely rich and majestic look to each piece. (As seen below)

Champion Vase from 18th Century (GW Vincent Smith Gallery, Massachusetts)
Cloisonné and Chinoiserie
In the 18th Century, Chinoiserie became a very popular fashion in Western countries. Through trading and ‘The Silk Road’, many pieces of Chinese furniture, art, fabrics and ornaments found themselves in the West. The rich, and mysterious appearance of these Eastern treasures quickly became very popular, and was in high demand not only from the higher class, but also the middle classes of the Western countries of Europe. Hense, Chinoiserie was developed. The Europeans picked up several techniques which would mirror that of the Chinese. An example of this is ‘Japanning’. A somewhat ignorant name used to describe the process of Chinese style laquerwork. And of course, another example is Cloisonné. This was a very popular technique in the Chinoiserie era, as it looked archetypally Chinese. Its appearance looked expensive and exotic, which is what people wanted.

Jade Carving (Yu)

Soft, smooth and glossy. It appeared to them like benevolence; fine, compact and strong – like intelligence”

Attributed to Confucius (551-479 BC)

The process of Jade carving is originally done by drawing a bow string back and forth to propel a drill, while adding water and abrasive to the stone. Jade is extremely difficult to carve and is sculpted by repetitively cutting, grinding and polishing the stone. It also a very expensive material to work with, and jade carvers must be careful not to waste it. They have to think of ways to make a beautiful design while keeping the carving to a minimum. The way Jade is carved is often symbolic. When carved into a pig, it represents prosperity, when it is in the shape of a disk, it represented Heaven, and when a piece of Jade is enclosed in a square, it represents the Earth.

Chinese Jade Sculptures

Carved Jade is thought to have become popular in China over 7000 years ago, when it was used for weaponry and ornaments. According to the Chinese ‘creation’ story, after man was created, he wandered the Earth with nothing to protect him from wild animals. A storm took pity on him and forged a rainbow into two Jade axes, which it tossed to the Earth for man to find and protect himself with. Since the beginning of Chinese history, Jade has been a prominent symbol of wealth, power, security, good health and strength.

An ancient Chinese proverb states, “You can out a price on Gold, but Jade is priceless”.

According to legend, only Emperors were allowed to posess carved Jade, and it is often referred to by the Chinese as ‘the Stone of Heaven’. A piece of Jade was sometimes placed on the tongue of a dead person to represent ressurection. To the Chinese, Jade is a majestic and divine stone.

Jade was commonly used to adorn the body.  During the Han Dynasty, royal members were buried in suits made of Jade. The suit was made up of several square Jade plates, which were woven together with wire, ribbon or silk.

Jade Burial Suit – Han Dynasty

Nowadays, a common trinket sold to tourists in Chinese markets is a faux-jade Buddha Pendant. Although the Chinese still treasure Jade, it is becoming less fashionable and more commercialised.

“But jade carving is very slow, and it takes a long time to sell, because the market for jade carving is narrow: just a few collectors here and in Japan and America.” 

Quote from a Jade Craftsman in an interview with the Smithsonian.

Buddha Pendant

How China Projects Itself to the World as a Travel Destination

When browsing through travel brochures for Beijing, Shanhai and other popular holiday destinations in China, I was somewhat surprised to see that not only did several of the brochures offer an extensive list of generic holiday activities like ‘Golf’ and ‘Skuba Diving’, but they didn’t seem to offer much in the way of exploring the culture. But why, I asked myself, would you want to play  game of golf, which you can do at home, when you’re in a beautiful country full of colour, exotic foods, new people, and interesting places? What strikes me as strange is China’s apparent want to westernise and commercialise itself.

Lychee Park, Shenzhen

Ironically, having never been to China myself, I have very set views of Chinese culture and ways of life. When I think of China, I immediately picture two vastly contrasting images: One being an idyllic countryside, a few solemn, architecturally stunning Chinese houses set against a backdrop of snowy mountains, cherry blossoms and rice fields; The other being a busy, polluted city with constantly rising skyscrapers, traffic jams, and markets bursting full of colour, exciting food and interesting people. All in all, it comes across as an extremely fascinating culture.

People at a Chinese Market

What I can’t understand, however, is China’s apparent need to sway towards commercialism. As a country it seems desperate to abolish its past, its beauty and its nature, in order to make room for westen culture, money and modern success. In Duncan Hewitt’s ‘Getting Rich First: Life In A Changing China’, he tells us of Mr Zhao, the owner of one of the last remaining houses in ‘The Forbidden City’, Beijing.  ‘We came home one day, and saw the Chinese word ‘Chai’, which means ‘demolish’ painted on the wall of the house…’

The Chinese do not appear to have any desire for frivolities or riches. They seem to strive for power, and high achievements rather than beauty and wealth, unlike many other countries. Hense, the Chinese are gradually ruling out everything that is great about their country. Their cities and roads are constantly expanding to make room for more factories and skyscrapers. And therefore, their countryside and nature suffers. Essentially, they are ruling out their past to make room for their future: Power.

A Westernised Chinese Wedding

What I noticed while flicking through travel brochures and ‘Places to Visit in China’ websites, was that the British guides focussed on Chinese culture, where to find the best views, where to experience Chinese ways of life first hand, while the Chinese guides were very much focussed on the best hotels and resorts, and the generic, mostly western, activities available. I found it ironic that the British flaunt China’s great qualities more than the Chinese do, but then again, adapting to western culture is ultimately what has made China become so successful.

Shoppers in a busy Chinese IKEA store

‘I have worked for this company for 15 years’, he said, in his lilting English, ‘and I have never seen anything like it.’ He seemed a little pale at the recollection. ‘The Saturday before last, we had 35,000 people in the store,’ he continued, ‘It looked like a tornado had gone through the place!’….’It was…woah!’ He sighed…Mr Gustavsson was, it perhaps goes without saying, the newly appointed manager of  the Chinese capital’s first branch of IKEA.’

Quote from ‘Getting Rich First: Life in a Changing China’

Duncan Hewitt

By connecting and cooperating with Europe and America, this thriving consumerist culture can constantly grow and become more and more powerful as a nation.

China’s ancient and rural regions, however, are still making a great impact on the country. China boasts a vast countryside of mountains, rivers and some of the best views in the world.  Not only are these fantastic travel destinations, the countryside is also essentially what feeds the nation. ‘In a sense, it is rather ironic.The countryside, after all, is where China’s economic reforms really got under way in the years after the Cultural Revolution…’  

Yellow Mountain (Mt. Huangshan)

Despite China’s growing cities, populations and power, their truly great advantages are their history, their culture and their countryside. As these, ultimately, are why people travel to China.